On most modern turbocharger engines, the position of the waste gate is governed by a pressure-sensing control mechanism coupled to an actuator. Engine oil directed into or away from this actuator moves the waste gate position. On these systems, the actuator is automatically positioned to produce the desired MAP simply by changing the position of the throttle control.
Other turbo charging system designs use a separate manual control to position the waste gate. With manual control, you must closely monitor the manifold pressure gauge to determine when the desired MAP has been achieved. Manual systems are often found on aircraft that have been modified with after market turbo charging systems. These systems require special operating considerations. For example, if the waste gate is left closed after descending from a high altitude, it is possible to produce a manifold pressure that exceeds the engine's limitations. This condition is referred to as an over boost, and it may produce severe detonation because of the leaning effect resulting from increased air density during descent.
Although an automatic waste gate system is less likely to experience an over boost condition, it can still occur. If you try to apply takeoff power while the engine oil temperature is below its normal operating range, the cold oil may not flow out of the waste gate actuator quickly enough to prevent an over boost. To help prevent over boosting, you should advance the throttle cautiously to prevent exceeding the maximum manifold pressure limits.
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There are system limitations that you should be aware of when flying an aircraft with a turbocharger. For instance, a turbocharger turbine and impeller can operate at rotational speeds in excess of 80,000 r.p.m. while at extremely high temperatures. To achieve high rotational speed, the bearings within the system must be constantly supplied with engine oil to reduce the frictional forces and high temperature. To obtain adequate lubrication, the oil temperature should be in the normal operating range before high throttle settings are applied. In addition, you should allow the turbocharger to cool and the turbine to slow down before shutting the engine down. Otherwise, the oil remaining in the bearing housing will boil, causing hard carbon deposits to form on the bearings and shaft.
These deposits rapidly deteriorate the turbocharger's efficiency and service life. For further limitations, refer to the AFM/POH.